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Thursday, 19 July 2007

The Super Insect- Mosquito

The Super Insect- Mosquito

Allah said in the Holy Qur’an:}Allah disdains not to use the similitude of things, lowest (like female mosquitoes) as well as highest. Those who believe know that it is truth from their Lord; but those who reject Faith say: "What means Allah by this similitude?" By it He causes many to stray, and many He leads into the right path; but He causes not to stray, except those who forsake (the path) [26]{ AL- Baqara

The reason for revealing this verse is what Ibn Abbas said: When Allah spoke about the non-Muslims’ Gods and said: }And if the fly should snatch away anything from them, they would have no power to realize it from the fly [73] { AL-Hajj, and, also, talked about those Gods’ deception and said that it looks like a spider’s flimsy web in its weakness, non-Muslims said: Have you seen what Allah mentioned about flies and spiders in Qur’an sent to Mohamad. What is the use of it? So Allah revealed this verse.

AL-Hasan and Qutada said: “When Allah mentioned flies and spiders in Qur’an and gave examples of those insects, the Jewish sarcastically said: (It does not seem like Allah’s speech” so this verse was revealed.

Those verses show that all creatures of Allah (Praise & Glory be to him), lowest as well as highest, are signs that prove the existence of Allah, even if they seem trivial. Allah (Praise & Glory be to him) has left in them His signs and capabilities which confuse minds. In this verse, Allah (Praise & Glory be to him) disdains not to give an example of mosquitoes that illiterates consider them as contemptible while Allah disdains not to give an example of them to prove the splendid signs in the creation of mosquitoes. In this essay, we will reveal some secrets in mosquitos’ world to discover the contrivance of Allah in Mosquitoes.

In 1902, Ronald Ross, entomologist, got The Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine. Do you know why?

Because he had studied one kind of mosquitoes called Anopheles and discovered that it transfers Malaria by which ten thousands of people die yearly.

An entomologist spent years in laboratories and received the highest international prize just for studying one kind of mosquitoes, so does this little creature worth to be given as an example by Allah (Praise & Glory be to him)?

Mosquitoes’ Power:

Yellow fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by a gentle mosquito which is the carrier and the main cause of Yellow fever. Even though, the relation between the mosquito and the Yellow fever was not discovered till 1900.

As a mosquito carrying the Yellow fever resides in a human habitat, the fatal illness usually spreads widely. During 1960-1962, an epidemic spread in Ethiopia killed about 30 thousand persons.

Margaret Humfreez, science historian, explained that carnages caused by Yellow fever are merely the only reason of establishing significant public health organizations in USA such as American Public Health Organization.

In governmental papers forbidden recently, we can observe the program of American biological war from 1945 to 1960. Yellow fever side-by-side to urban mosquitoes carrying the disease had major militarily prospects.

In 1953, working on mosquito-attack strategies began at Camp Derrick. Some benefits of those attacks were obvious because the virus was injected directly to a human body. As long as a mosquito is alive, the area, where it is spread, becomes hazardous since there isn’t known cure for Yellow fever yet. Population of Soviet could be dramatically infected by the disease because it will be difficult to organize a vaccination program on required rate. In 1956, experiments established in Georgia and Florida using uninfected mosquitoes. These insects were great carriers as mosquitoes spread over many miles square very quickly.

An entomologist called Andrew Spielman, a researcher of mosquito’s Diseases and a professor of tropical public health at Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), said in the book “Mosquito”: (there is no organism on earth touched the life of this huge number of people like mosquitoes)

Allah said: }and none can know the forces of thy Lord, except He. And this is no other than a warning to mankind [31] {AL-Mudather

Mosquitoes’ Flying:

Scientists discovered that a mosquito called Culex pipiens must flips its wings about 500 times per second to fly in a reasonable speed equals three miles per hour.

Unusual Adventure of Mosquitoes:

It is known that a mosquito is a bloodsucker insect and it ingests blood. Conversely, this is not true because not all mosquitoes suck blood but only female mosquitoes do. Mentioning the mosquito in the feminine form in the Qur’an might be one of the miracles because the female mosquitoes are more powerful and complex. Also, they transmit the diseases and spread at houses. Male mosquitoes appear only in breeding seasons.

Female mosquito does not suck blood to feed on as it always lives on floral nectar, but it sucks blood only to feed the eggs. The difference between male and bloodsucker female that females hold the eggs which need proteins to grow. In other words, we can say that they preserve their offspring by this way.

Pincers for Breeding

Entomologists discover that adult male mosquitoes search for females using hearing sense, and that females’ audible range are not as powerful as males.

Females’ voice alerts males and is received by tiny feathers lies at the end of antennae. When breeding with a female, entomologists noticed that there is an organ in males next to the sexual organs to help in catching a female called pincers.

Males fly in flocks like clouds. If a female enters this group, a male starts breeding and catches the female while flying by the pincers. This process takes short time. Then, the male returns to the flock. After that, the female carrying eggs sucks blood of humans in order to feed the eggs.

Mosquitoes’ Life Cycle Briefly:

Females carrying eggs suck blood to feed the egg, and during summer or fall, females lay the eggs on moist leaves or near dry lakes. The mother mosquito searches for an appropriate place to lay the eggs by proboscis lying under its abdomen. When it finds the proper place, it lays the eggs - which are less than 1 mlm long- one by one or as clusters in one row. Another type of mosquito ties the eggs together and lays it after that. The number of eggs laid in one group is 300 eggs.

One or two hours after laying the eggs, they change their colors to black so it can not be identified by other insects, thus, killed, i.e. to avoid being a food for them. The most remarkable thing is that they change their colors according to the environment they live in.

Respiratory System:

In larvae that develop into mosquitoes, the main part of the respiratory system is the air tube or siphon that can take it out of water to breathe by. Larvae existing in water are suspended upside down, and to prevent water penetration into the tube, it secretes a sticky item from its body.

No mosquito knows about changes in colors of the mother mosquito, eggs and larvae. It is not created by the mosquito itself and it does not exist coincidentally, but mosquitoes were created with those characteristics.

Hatching from Eggs:

After the phase of eggs nursery, the larvae hatch one after another form the eggs. These larvae feed, develop and grow. Then, they change their skin colors. Larva skin is tough and easy to be broken. Larvae change their colors at least twice till their maturity.

The way of larva’s feeding is odd. A very important mechanism present in the larva allows it to eat head-down in the water. Thanks to this mechanism, the larva, which cannot go after its prey, agitates the water and brings prey to its mouth. It creates a current in the water by the rapid shaking of the 4 sets of fine-haired brushes on either side of its mouth. Bacteria found in the water are thus guided into the larva’s mouth by the motion of the water. The larva also eats the bacteria that get stuck in these brushes”. Book of “Miracles in mosquito”, Harun Yaha.

These larvae live in water suspended and breathe via air tubes, like divers. They prevent the entrance of water in the tube by secreting special enzymes.

It is obvious that this creature does most of its work in extreme precision and sensitivity which assure its survival.

If it doesn’t have the tube to breathe or doesn’t have the sticky liquid to prevent water form getting into the tube, water will enter into the tube, so it will die. There will be no possibility to survive. This means that all the systems of a mosquito created complete.

Larva changes its color again, and then starts a new phase with another figure. Then, it changes into a tow-wing mosquito.

Holes in the air tube disappear in the last change (the latest insect) because the new insect does not need them as there are tow tubes in the sides of mosquito’s head by which it can breathe. Thus, these organisms get to the surface before starting the process of skin change.

When a mosquito gets out of a larva phase, it should not touch the surface of water by its head because one moment without air causes its death.

Larva is cut form the top to ensure the developing of the insect. This is the most critical phase in the mosquito’s life cycle as the entrance of water to the coating causes its death. Allah’s Glory is in that the cut part is from top, where the head goes out from it. For separating water from the insect’s head, Allah’s Glory made the head covered with a special kind of glue to prevent water from reaching it. This is very important because any air blowing might make the mosquito fall in water and die. Thus, it puts the foot first on water when starting the new phase.

There are some questions might come to mind such as:

How can a mosquito change the phases? How does it have this ability to change its skin three times and become a complete mosquito? It is Allah’s glory and contrivance.

The Internal Composition of Mosquito:

The Salivary Gland:

A couple of salivary glands is located in the thorax of a mosquito. Each gland has three lobes; each lobe has a central duct which is fused at the main duct of the salivary gland. The tow salivary ducts of the glands fuse together to form a common salivary duct extended in the head which has a whole in a small cavity called salivary pump where saliva runs forward in the salivary duct located in the tongue. The salivary gland has a crucial role in the transmission of Malaria by keeping “sporozoite”, the phases by which humans get the infection. Then, flowing out with saliva to the injury turned out by the insect.

The Digestive System:

The digestive system in mosquito consists of a small mouth cavity followed by a strong crop working as a pump to draw blood through the upper lip. A short tube passes through the neck called gullet which has three bags; two are approximately round-shaped located in the back and the third is extended in the abdomen and the back and might reach the third or the forth segment of the abdomen. Gullet, the foregut, is linked to the stomach, the midgut, by a short muscular tube called the first stomach, “proventriculus”. Stomach is extended from the thorax up to the special abdominal segment, and has a great ability to expand, especially the backside.

Adult mosquito can ingest 2-3 mlm in a single meal to extract the used azotic substances and eliminate them through intestines, the hindgut, out of the body. The intestine is a short and slender tube expanding to form the Malpighian tubules that has an outlet passage through the anus.

The Circulatory System:

The circulatory system in mosquito is an open system where blood passes through the body cavities and through which the digested food is absorbed from the digestive tract and carried to all parts of the body.

Heart lies near the upper abdomen wall. It consists of many long and thin chambers. Blood gets in by side openings in each chamber, and runs in one way toward head. The front part of heart is combined with a capillary called aorta which shapes the body cavity.

The blood does not have red blood cells, so it has nothing to do with respiration. It only carries the food from the digestive tract to other tissues.

The Respiratory System:

The respiratory system in mosquito, as in all other insects, consists of thin tubes called tracheas which have outlet passages on the abdomen and thorax segments.

Inside the insect body, tracheas extend, branch off and interlace in a particular way and go deep until combining with the body’s cell. The small tubelets of trachea are called tracheoles. They have rings or spiral from inside while tracheas do not have those rings and spirals. They start with exterior openings situated on the sides of body wall called spiracles through which air enters and leaves. Tow of those spiracles lies in thorax and seven in the abdominal segments; from the 1st up to the 7th.

The Nervous System:

The nervous system in mosquito is made up of a nervous cord consists of ganglia joint to each other by nervous fibers. A pair of ganglia exists in the head and called the brain; the front pair is above the gullet, and the back pair is under it. In the thorax, there are three pairs of ganglia fused into one. It is located next to the thorax wall near the abdomen. In the lower abdomen, there are five pairs of ganglia. The three pairs of ganglia of thorax and the pairs of the first abdominal segment are joint to the backside of the head to form the brain.

The Reproductive System:

It lies in the back of a mosquito abdomen in the circulatory cavity. In females, it consists of tow ovaries; each has a small tube called the oviduct. The tow tubes fuse in the abdomen to form a vagina, which has outlet genital opening located at the back of anus. The pouch duct, which receives and stores the sperms, besides the additional gland duct, which releases a lubricant called kerlex to accumulate the egg together to form the egg boat, end in vagina. The sperms are stored in the vesicle to be used by the female. In males, the reproductive system consists of tow testes, each has a seminal duct fuses together to form the ejaculation duct that has outlet passage in the genital opening.

How Mosquitoes Can Realize Organisms in Nature:

A mosquito has the ability of sensing the organisms by their heat. A mosquito can detect heat in the form of colors. This sense does not depend on sunbeams – i.e. light. The visual sensors equal 1/1000 compared to the heat sensors.

A mosquito has about 100 eyes in the head in a shape looks like the honeycombs. Mosquito’s eyes detect those signals and transfer them to the brain.

Only females lives on blood while males live on nectar and plants secretion.

When a mosquito sucks blood, it uses an elusive technique. The complicated system used is as following:

When a mosquito lands on the prey by smelling its blood first to check whether it is appropriate or not, if it was not, it leaves and finds another food. If blood is appropriate, it searches a proper thin place which has a heavy amount of blood such as the venule. Then, it determines a certain place by lips exist in the mouthpart.

It sprays that place with an anesthetic works like local anesthetics.

The mosquito has a needle, a hollow in the upper lip, which has a special cover used while sucking the blood. The skin is not pierced by this needle, as thought, but by the upper mandible which look like a knife, and the lower mandible which has teeth leaning inward that works and moves as a saw. The hollow lower lip has a lubricant liquid to gather the parts of the mouth to be as one organ. The skin is pierced by the upper mandible, which works as a knife, and in the piercing, the needle gets in till reaching the vein, and starts sucking.

As it is known, shortly after blood gets out in the human body, with the help of human enzymes, blood coagulates in that place.

So these enzymes cause a major problem to a mosquito because its piercing will be closed in a short time. That means it can not suck the blood. However, such problem does not face a mosquito as it forms a substance in its body and injects it in the piercing of a person to prevent the coagulation. Also, these anticoagulants cause inflammation of the skin, so the blood impels toward it. Thus, it continues bloodsucking. When a mosquito bites a person in a certain place, this place swells and itches as a result of the anticoagulants secreted by the mosquito.

Undoubtedly, all these duties give us many questions such as:

1. How does a mosquito know about this enzyme which coagulates the blood?

2. How does a mosquito prevent the coagulating enzyme by forming special anticoagulants? How it knows about these chemicals? How do all these processes happen?

3. How does this insect form such enzyme autogenously, and transmit it by its techniques to the human body?

4. Where does a mosquito get this information from?

The answer of all these questions is simple. A mosquito can not do anything because it does not have a perceiving brain, information about chemistry, nor a laboratory to form these anticoagulants. The insect we are talking about is a few millimeters long, and does not have a mind, nor education. The Creator of the human being and this mosquito, unusual super insect, who gave it such an amazing super system, is the Creator of the humans and the one who can recreate him in the Judgment day.

Written by: Feras Nour AL-Hak.

Turkish author: Harun Yahya

The Magazine of “The New York Review of Books”, by: Richard Horton, Translated by: Ahmad Mahmood. This essay was published in the magazine of “Weghat An-Nathar”, Issue no. 44, 2002 under the title of “Mosquitos

Translated by: Reem AL-Sayed

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