Many students believe that managing time is the most difficult process that affects their performance in universities and schools. Managing time skills should be wisely used to accomplish your goals. First of all ,assigning a weekly or a daily schedule is very important to identify your own assignment that you must do during this week or your day also this schedule will always remind you that there is a tasks not finished yet. Because this is a very important step to do, you should stick to your program by enforcing yourself to do it. Moreover, try to finish up the harder task first because it is a pleasure to finish it quickly. Don’t forget to reward your self by participating in a social event you like to do. In the second step, which is the most important stage, try to make your schedule more flexible by specifying a time in your day for such kinds of emergency, such as a sudden visit from your neighbor, or a friend .In this cases you must add as soon as possible this change to your schedule, then try to fix it again in such a way that fits with your objective for that day. Besides, don’t be frustrated or depressed when your task is not done yet, and try to postpone it to the second day which will keep you aware offer that mission. Finally, using these steps will enable you to improve your performance without affecting other areas in your life
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Saturday, 21 July 2007
A Jewish rabbi settler in one of Gaza settlements, who dreamt to establish the Big Israel (one of the principles that Israeli people believe in ) , embraced Islam and converted to call for Islam among the Jews in Israel. The rabbi Yosuf Cohen ,34 years old, is a settler in a settlement in GazaStrip ,and one of Satmar's followers - a mystical Jewish movement .He came to Israel before four years from the USA, and was charmed by the religious movement Shas gleam ,but this charm did not last long. Yosuf Cohen decided to announce his Islam and his family's did too. Thereby, He has moved to live in the Eastern Jerusalem.
former Rabbi Yousif Khatb
Cohen's twisted way began at Karolin Distract where he became one of Satmar's followers. Via mediator , he met his wife Lona Cohen,with whom he got married before 12 years old and they have4 children. He decided to travel to Israel in 1998.So,he and his family arrived directly to the settle mental complex "Gosh gatif" in Gadir settlement in Gaza Strip. Many Zionistic ideas of establishing the Big Israel were in his mind ,but life in Gaza did not suit the circumstances of the newly-comer family, so the family decided to move out later and dwell in "ntitof" –a small city located in the south of Israel . Moreover ,Cohen began to go frequently to the old Jerusalem marketbecause of his work, and for the first time ,he started to communicate with Moslems. At some period, he corresponded with some religious Moslem men and began to read the Holy Quran in English.
However ,Cohen determined to cross all the boundaries, professing his Islam and changing his name to be Yosuf Khatab .In additional to that, his wife changed her name to "Gamar", and their children's names were changed and the children themselves study in an Islamic school ,and speak Arabic fluently while their father is at an advanced stage in learning Arabic. The family moved out to settle in the Al-toor mountain in the western Jerusalem and Khatab works in an Islamic charity organization in the city.
Khatab was not onlycontent with converting to Islam; but also adopted the Islamic stream of fundamentalists " known in Arabic as salfi" and became a promoter for Islam. Moreover, he set up an Islamic center for calling people to Islam ,which embarks vast activities between the Jew to embrace Islam and actually tenth of Jews embraced Islam because of his Islamic activities.
The family of Yousif Khatab
According to Khatab, Hamas movement typifies or represents the right methodological way of Islam, and he assures that the stream to which he belongs is against bombings actions .However, Israeli authorities have tightened up on Khatab since he professed Islam ,and they refused to acknowledge him as a Muslim until he obtained the admittance of the Interior Ministry after so many troubles, and by efforts made by the mediation of Jerusalem Economical and Social Rights Centre .Khatab criticized intensively the members of Shas movement to whom he was affiliated before his Islam, saying "I had come here because of the Rabbi Aofadia Yosif "the spiritual leader of Shas party" and I became Moslem because of him ,too. I had deepappreciation for him, and decided to give his name to my elder son, but I changed his name from "Fodafia" to "Abdullah" after becoming Moslem
Carrying no positive words in his heart , neither about the prime minister 'Ariel Sharon', nor about Israeli people; Khatb says ,"Moslems suffer injustice everywhere ,and Sharon heaps more on them" ,and it is the same for the former Palestinian government ,which did not gain any admiration from Khatab .As for his point of view about the middle east ,he was content with establishing Palestinian country,saying" the first goal is to establish the Palestinian country on the maximum land. Before arriving to Israel,he made up is mind that the religious party "Shas" is the nearest to him and to his beliefs. So , as soon as he arrived ,he joined the party and absorbed in the daily work , gaining many certificates as appreciation of his efforts, and a little by a little he came to a position in which he reached to a decision "I can not bear that anymore. I do not want to be a Jewish any more ".
He adds" this decision did not come hastily or spontaneously. I spent most of my time in correspondence and in logging on different sites on the internet, and during that time I knew a man named 'Zhada', and our relationship deepened. we talked with each other daily; religion was the centre of ourconversation", so he aimed at getting more knowledge about Islam. Day by day, Cohen aspired to get more about Islam , and he was possessed with curiosity. He says," At the beginning, our speech focalized on the philosophy of life, its importance, its beauty, and to which extent the Islamic religion affects man. Thereafter, our relation became deeper, till I realized that Zhada is sheik from the United Arab of Emirates in the Arabian Gulf, and he is conversant in religion". So, Zhada told him that he would phone sheiks in Jerusalem and he could reach them; they, on their parts, would elucidate more about the Islamic religion for him, and the contact will be easier via internet. As a result, Cohen accepted this suggestion after being attracted to this religion and convinced of its teachings. So, he proceeded to Jerusalem sheiks, who succeeded to convince him to abandon the Jewish religion and to embrace Islam.
Yosuf did not hesitate ,notifying his wife his decision .For his wife, she did not entirely oppose him. contrarily, she had the same enthusiasm to embrace Islam. Thereby, they both started to learn more about Islam, and to go deep into it, till they reached to a decision of going to the Legal Court in Jerusalem and register the family as a Moslem family.
Now, he is working on setting up centre for calling for Islam midst the Jewish themselves in Jerusalem in the old market ,near the Borag Wall ,and for enquiring about the Islamic religion, till now the number of people who embraced Islam through the center attained tens .He says that he pursues the course of the prophet Mohamed(Peace be upon him),and follows Ahmed Bin Hanbal school of legislation . Also, he learned the Islamic religion from the books and fatawa( opinions) of Sheikh Authman Bin Abdulaziz Bin Baz, Sheik Naser AL-Deen AL-Albani, Sheik Monthir, and Sheik Gasim AL-Hakee.
When he was asked about being a Jewish Rabbi, who lived in a settlement in Gaza, and suddenly converted to be a Moslem calling for Islam ,what is the reason for that?
He replied, " I lived in Gosh Gatif settlement in Gaza, but now I am hated in Israel, because of my Islam, and the reason of being Moslem is the monotheism of Allah.
Likewise, when he was asked" being a Moslem person ,wearing Islamic clothes , does that bring about problems when you are at state borderor when you in any Israeli office, do not they think that you are Arabian ?
"They were stunned when they saw me, and when they knew that my name is Yosuf Cohen ,they thought I was an Arab appropriating Israeli identity ,so I got exposed to detention for an hour or two hours at the borders check-point – Ghaza Palestinians were allowed in without problem . They just center their attention on me, because of wearing Sunna Moslem clothes. Stealing an Israeli identity for the Israeli border check points means that I am on my way to carry out a terrorist suicide. One time , my son Abdulrahman and I were arrested in the Aqsa Mosque and we have been detained for five hours. During these hours, they nagged me with questions about Islam to make sure that I am Moslem; that happened while I was living in Netfot settlement; they assured that I am Moslem when they let my son Abdulrahman pray in front of them, because they suspected me of being a Moslem . Moreover, I was subjected to arrest for many times, because of being suspected of stealing Israeli identity and of impersonating as a Jewish person who is trying to carry out a military operation in Israel.
Yosuf Cohen with his wife Lona, and his four children :Rah maim Shalom(11 years old), Hasiba(9 years old),Ezra(7 years old), Afoadia (5 years old),converted from the Jewish religion to the Islamic religion. Therefore, Yosuf Cohen and the members of his family has become citizens ,who has espoused Islam. Consequently, they have Arab names which are : Yosuf Mohamed Khatab(the father),Gamar Mohamed Khatab (the mother), Abdulrahman(the elder son),Hasiba ( she keeps the same name), Abulaziz (instead of Ezra), and Abdulrahman (instead of Aofadia).
Yosuf Khatab's decision of espousing along with his family's has provoked ado and cyclone in the Israeli religious assemblies ,especially in Shas party to whom he was belonged; many pressures has been executed upon him to change his mind, but he confronted these pressures forcefully ,and refused to submit. Afterwards, he was compelled to move out to settle in the occupied Eastern Jerusalem.
The source of article: taken from the Palestinian newspaper,"Dunia AL-Watan"
Bismilah al rahman al rahim
During the life of the Prophet (saas) (570-632 CE)
The Prophet (saas) used to recite the Qur'an before angel Jibreel (Gabriel) once every Ramadan, but he recited it twice (in the same order we have today) in the last Ramadan before his death. Jibreel also taught the Prophet (saas) the seven modes of recitation.
Each verse received was recited by the Prophet, and its location relative to other verses and surahs was identified by him.
The verses were written by scribes, selected by the Prophet, on any suitable object - the leaves of trees, pieces of wood, parchment or leather, flat stones, and shoulder blades. Scribes included Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, Ubey Ibn Ka'ab, Zayed Ibn Thabit.
Some of the companions wrote the Qur'an for their own use.
Several hundred companions memorized the Qur'an by heart.
During the caliphate of Abu Bakr (632-634 CE)
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab urged Abu Bakr to preserve and compile the Qur'an. This was prompted after the battle of Yamamah, where heavy casualties were suffered among the reciters who memorized the Qur'an.
Abu Bakr entrusted Zayed Ibn Thabit with the task of collecting the Qur'an. Zayed had been present during the last recitation of the Qur'an by the Prophet to Angel Jibreel (Gabriel).
Zayed, with the help of the companions who memorized and wrote verses of the Qur'an, accomplished the task and handed Abu Bakr the first authenticated copy of the Qur'an.
The copy was kept in the residence of Hafsah, daughter of Umar and wife of the Prophet.
During the caliphate of Uthman(644-656 CE
Uthman ordered Zayed Ibn Thabit, Abdullah Ibn Al Zubayr, Saeed Ibn Al-Aas, and Abdur-Rahman Ibn Harith Ibn Hisham to make perfect copies of the authenticated copy kept with Hafsa. This was due to the rapid expansion of the Islamic state and concern about differences in recitation.
Copies were sent to various places in the Muslim world. The original copy was returned to Hafsa, and a copy was kept in Madinah.
Three stages of dotting and diacritization
Dots were put as syntactical marks by Abu Al-Aswad Al Doaly, during the time of Mu'awiya Ibn Abi Sufian (661-680 CE).
The letters were marked with different dotting by Nasr Ibn Asem and Hayy ibn Ya'amor, during the time of Abd Al-Malek Ibn Marawan (685-705 CE).
A complete system of diacritical marks (damma, fataha, kasra) was invented by Al Khaleel Ibn Ahmad Al Faraheedy (d. 786 CE).
Question: Did the Ka’bak exist before Islam? Who first built the Ka’bah? Is it the same building that it has always been since ancient times?
Answered by the Fatwa Department Research Committee - chaired by Sheikh `Abd al-Wahhâb al-Turayrî
Allah has appointed the Ka`bah to be the dedicated place for the pilgrimage (Hajj), which is one of the five pillars of Islam.
Allah says: “Pilgrimage thereto is a duty people owe to Allah, those who can afford the journey” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 97].
We know that the Ka`bah was the first House built on Earth for the worship of Allah, since we read in the Qur’ân: “The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka: full of blessing and of guidance for all the worlds” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 96]
Bakka is an older name for Mecca.
However, the first builder of Ka`bah and its date of construction is a matter of considerable disagreement. Ibn Jarîr al-Tabarî narrates a wide variety of statements on the matter made by some of the Companions and others. He then says:
The correct thing is to say only that Allah had told Abraham and his son Ishmael to raise the foundations of the House. These foundations might possibly have been sent down with Adam who carried them to their place in Mecca. They might possibly have been made of corundum or from a pearl sent down to Earth. Adam might possibly have built it first, but if he had, it had fallen into ruin long before Abraham and Ishmael raised its foundations.Finally, Ibn Jarîr concludes:
There is no way to give preference to any of these opinions, because such things cannot be confirmed without an authentic statement from the Prophet (peace be upon him), and that is something which does not exist on the matter.We know for a fact that Abraham and Ishmael built the Ka`bah, regardless of who might have built it before them.
Allah says: “And remember Abraham and Ishmael raised the foundations of the House.” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 127]
Another piece of evidence that Abraham built the House is the authentic hadîth in Sahîh al-Bûkhârî that Ibrâhîm told Isma`îl : “Allah has ordered me to build a house there” and he pointed to an rise. [Fath al-Bârî (6/397)]
After that it was rebuilt by the Amalekites, Jûrhûm, and Qusayy b. Kilâb.
It was again rebuilt by Quraysh during the Prophet Muhammad’s lifetime after being damaged by a flood. This took place long before the Prophet (peace be upon him) began to receive revelation.
The tribe of Quraysh at that time was short of money, so they did not rebuild it according to the original foundations that had been laid by Abraham (peace be upon him). They left out the portion referred to as the Hijr and make it outside the physical structure of the Ka`bah. They made only one door for the Ka`bah.
`Â’ishah relates that the Prophet said: “O `Â’ishah! Were your people not close to the Pre-Islamic times of ignorance, I would have had the Ka`bah demolished and would have included in it the portion which had been left, and would have made it at a level with the ground and would have made two doors in it, one towards the east and the other towards the west, and then by doing this it would have been built on the foundations laid by Abraham.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim]
Since then, it has been rebuilt by `Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr (who restored it to its original foundations after the people of Syria attacked it), then by al-Hajjaj (who returned it to the foundations that it had after Quraysh rebuilt it), then by the Ottoman Sultan Murâd Khân the Fourth.
Repairing and refurbishing works continues all the time, the latest being only a few years ago
Purification of the Soul: the Types of Hearts
Compiled from the works of
Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah and Abu Hamid al-Ghazaali
Just as the heart may be described in terms of being alive or dead, it may also be regarded as belonging to one of three types; these are the healthy heart, the dead heart, and the sick heart.
The Healthy Heart
On the Day of Resurrection, only those who come to Allah with a healthy heart will be saved. Allah says:
"The day on which neither wealth nor sons will be of any use,
except for whoever brings to Allah a sound heart."
In defining the healthy heart, the following has been said: "It is a heart cleansed from any passion that challenges what Allah commands, or disputes what He forbids. It is free from any impulses which contradict His good. As a result, it is safeguarded against the worship of anything other than Him, and seeks the judgment of no other except that of His Messenger (peace be upon him). Its services are exclusively reserved for Allah, willingly and lovingly, with total reliance, relating all matters to Him, in fear, hope, and sincere dedication. When it loves, its love is in the way of Allah. If it detests, it detests in the light of what He detests. When it gives, it gives for Allah. If it withholds , it withholds for Allah. Nevertheless, all this will not suffice for its salvation until it is free from following, or taking as its guide, anyone other that His Messenger (peace be upon him). A servant with a healthy heart must dedicate it to its journeys end and not base his actions and speech on those of any other person except Allahs Messenger (peace be upon him). He must not give any precedence to any other faith , words or deeds over those of Allah and His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Allah says:
"Oh you who believe, do not put yourselves above Allah and His Messenger,
but fear Allah, for Allah is Hearing, Knowing." (49:1)
The Dead Heart
This is the opposite of the healthy heart. It does not know its Lord and does not worship Him as He commands, in the way which He likes, and with which He is pleased. It clings instead to its lust and desires, even if these are likely to incur Allahs displeasure and wrath. It worships things other than Allah, and its love and its hatreds, and its giving and its withholding, arise from its whims, which are of paramount importance to it and preferred above the pleasure of Allah. Its whims are its imam. Its lust is its guide. Its ignorance is its leader. Its crude impulses are its impetus. It is immersed in its concern with worldly objectives. It is drunk with its own fancies and its love for hasty, fleeting pleasures. It is called to Allah and the akhira from a distance but it does not respond to advice, and instead it follows any scheming, cunning shayton. Life angers and pleases it, and passion makes it deaf and blind (1) to anything except what is evil. To associate and keep company with the owner of such a heart is to temp illness: living with him is like taking poison, and befriending him means utter destruction.
The Sick Heart
This is a heart with life in it as well as illness. The former sustains it at one moment, the latter at another, and it follows whichever one of the two manages to dominate it. It has love for Allah, faith in Him, sincerity towards Him, and reliance upon Him, and these are what give it life. It also has a craving for lust and pleasure, and prefers them and strives to experience them. It is full of self-admiration, which can lead to its own destruction. It listens to two callers: one calling it to Allah and His Prophet (peace be upon him) and the akhira; and the other calling it to the fleeting pleasures of this world. It responds to whichever one of the two happens to have most influence over it at the time. The first heart is alive, submitted to Allah, humble, sensitive, and aware; the second is brittle and dead; the third wavers between either its safety or its ruin.
1. It has been related on the authority of Abud-Darda that the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) said, "Your love for something that makes you blind and deaf." Abu Dawud, Al-Adab, 14/38: Ahmad, Al-Musnad, 5/194. Classified as hasan.
A great picture shown how all the muslims unite to one direction to worship one God only..
The Kaaba was built by the prophet Adam , then rebuilt by the prophet Abraham ...
Say after me ...There is no God But Allah ...and Muhammad is his prophet
U r officially a muslims now .. U r saved ...
All the prophets including Jesus Prayed to God "Allah" the almighty they were brothers and they worshiped one god ....
Look at the video and how they prayed and how muslims and notice that they are the same..
Other examples where Jesus (P) wanted to pray. He went off by himself to pray in private. The following references by the four gospel writers emphasize and illustrate examples where Jesus prayed alone, however not specific in regards to how he prayed:
Mark 6:46: "And when he had sent them away, he departed into a mountain to pray."
Matthew 14:23: "And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray: and when the evening was come, he was there alone." (KJV)
Luke 9:18: "And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him..."
John 6:15: "...he departed again into a mountain himself alone."
Also, check out these references:
Mark 1:35: "And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed."
Luke 5:16: "And he withdrew himself into the wilderness, and prayed."
Luke 6:12: "And it came to pass in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in prayer to God".
My dear sisters in Islam, please take a look at this advice, so that you can stay attractive and beautiful for the rest of your life.
1- To beautify your eyes, lower your gaze towards strange men, this will make your eyes pure and shiny.
2- To have attractive lips, always remember to speak the truth.
3- As for blush and rouge, "Modesty" (Haya') is one of the best brands and it can be found in any of the Islamic centers.
4- To remove impurites from your face and body, use a soap called "Istighfaar". Insha'Allah this soap will remove any bad deeds.(Ameen)
5- Now about your hair, if any of you has a problem of hair split ends, then I suggest "Islamic Hijaab" which will protect your hair from damage.
6- As! for jewellery, beautify your hands with humbleness and let your hands be a power to forgive people who hurt your feelings. And the necklace should be a sign to pardon you fellow brothers and sisters.
Insha'Allah, if you follow this advice given to you by the Creator a beautiful and attractive inner and outer appearance."Verily in the rememberence of Allah do hearts find rest" (Quran-13:28) "Allah sometimes takes us into troubled waters- Not to drown us, but to cleanse us."
Daw'ah Through Actions...
Taken from 'Words of Advice Regarding Da'wah' from Shaykh 'Abdul 'Azeez ibn 'Abdullaah ibn Baaz, compiled by Ziyaad ibn Muhammad as-Sa'doon
...Among the characteristics and morals which the daa'ee must possess is acting upon his own da'wah, and he must be a good example of what he is calling to. He shouldn't be someone who calls to something and then leaves that thing himself. Nor should he be someone who forbids an action and then does that action himself. This is the condition of the losers, and we seek refuge with Allaah from this.
As for the successful believers they call to the truth, act upon it, eagerly seek it, and hasten towards it. They also keep away from those things that they themselves forbid.
Allaah, the Most High, says in the Qur'aan,
O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do. Most hateful it is with Allaah that you say that which you do not do. [Soorah as-Saff (61):2-3]
And who is better in speech than he who invites (men) to Allaah, the Most High, and does righteous deeds and says I am one of the Muslims. [Soorah al-Fussilat (41):33]
This magnificent verse clarifies to us that the daa'ee must be one that acts righteously calling to Allaah, the Most High, with his tongue as well as with his actions as it is specified in the Qur'aan, "...and (the one who) does righteous deeds."
So the daa'ee must call the people with his tongue and with his actions, and there is no-one better in speech than these types of people. They are those who call and direct the people to Allaah through their pure speech, actions, and whole conduct which make them become righteous examples.
Similarly the Prophets, 'alayhimus-salaam, gave da'wah through their speech as well as their actions and indeed through their whole way of life. Thus many of those who were being called, benefitted more from their conduct than from what they actually said, especially the general people and those deficient in knowledge. So these people derived benefit from this virtuous lifestyle, and their behaviour and their actions, to a greater extent than from mere speech which they may not necessarily have understood.
So truly the most important task for the daa'ee is that he must have a righteous lifestyle, he must be righteous in his actions and possess a righteous character so that he can be emulated in his words and actions...
Taken from 'Al-Istiqaamah' magazine (Issue No.4, p.3) being a translation of some of the wasaayah given by Shaykh Ibn al-'Uthaymeen to the brothers in England:
...O my brothers, da'wah (calling to Islaam) is to be done by your actions, as you are commanded to do it with your speech. However, da'wah through actions will be more effective than da'wah which is merely done with speech. So I say again, that those who practice Islaam in a wrong manner, they will create a false understanding of Islaam in people's view. Allaah - the Most High - has said about those who invite to what is correct, but do not practice themselves:
"O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do. It is most hateful to Allaah that you say that which you do not do." [Soorah as-Saff 61:2-3]
SOME OF THE HUMAN QUALITIES ALLAH, THE ALMIGHTY LOVES
"Say (O Muhammad to mankind): "If you (really) love Allah, then follow me (i.e. accept Islamic monotheism, follow the Quran and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." (Quran: 3:31)
"And Allah loves as-Sabirun (the patient)." (Quran: 3:146)
Justice and Dealing with Equity
"Be just: that is nearer to piety; and fear Allah." (Quran: 5:8)
Putting Trust in Allah
"Certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him)." (Quran: 3:159)
Perfection of One's Work
The Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves that if one does a job he perfects it."
Abu Ya ‘la Dailami and Ibn Asakir narrated: Abu Hurairah and Anas Ibn Malik said: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves rescuing the one who needs rescue."
Being Kind and Gentle to Others
Baihaqani narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah is kind and gentle (to others)."
"Aisha narrated: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves kindliness in all matters." (Bukhari)
"Truly, Allah loves those who turn unto him in repentance." (Quran: 2:222)
"Verily, then Allah loves those who are al-Muttaqun (the pious)."
"Truly, Allah loves Al-Muhsinun (the good-doers)." (Quran: 2:195)
"And Allah loves those who make themselves clean and pure [ i.e. who clean their private parts with dust (which has the properties of soap) and water from urine and stools, after answering the call of nature]." (Quran: 9:108)
Humility of the Rich
Muslim narrated: Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas said: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves the believer who is pious and rich, but does not show off."
Belief and Work
Al-Tabarani narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves the slave who believes and acquires a career (or work)."
Reflection of Allah's Grace
Al-Tirmidhi narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves from amongst his slaves, the one who has a sense of zeal or honor."
Al-Hakim narrated: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Allah is All-Generous and He loves generosity in sale, purchase and judgment."
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: " Allah loves the slave-believer who is poor but virtuous enough to refrain from begging though he has many children." (Muslim and Ahmed)
Al-Tabarani narrated: the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves lofty matters and superiority and hates inferior matters."
Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah loves that you be just toward your children even when kissing them." (Ibn Al-Najjar)
Muslim narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "The strong believer is better and more loved by Allah than the weak one, but they are both good."
Love for the Sake of Allah
Al-Tabarani, Ibn Ya'la, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "If two men love each other for the sake of Allah, the stronger in love to his brother will be more loved by Allah."
Ibn Iday narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah is All-Forgiving and He loves forgiveness."
Continuous Performance of Righteous Deeds
Bukhari and Muslim narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "The best loved deeds to Allah are the ones that are continuous even if they are not very many."
Loving and Visiting Believers
Malik narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah said: My love is due to those who meet for My sake, visit one another and make any effort for My pleasure."
Exhortation and Advising
Abdullah, the son of Imam Ahmed narrated: It was said: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "The best loved slaves to Allah are those who exhort their slaves."
Love of Virtuous Deeds
Ibn Abi Al-Dunya narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "The best loved slaves to Allah are those who are made to love virtue and loving virtuous deeds is made lovely to them."
Good Manners and Conduct
Al-Tirmidhi narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "The best loved by me and the nearest to me on the seats on the Day of Resurrection are those who have the best manners and conduct amongst you, who are intimate, are on good terms with others and are humble, and the most hated by me and who will be on the furthest seats from me are those who are talkative and arrogant."
Love of Allah is the basis of worship that should be directed to Him alone. Any other love should be for His sake too. The real love of Allah is to do whatever He ordained and to abandon whatever He forbade, in addition to following the Prophet's Sunnah.
Whoever obeys someone or something other than Allah and His Messenger, or follows any saying other than theirs, or fears other than Allah or seeks the pleasure of other than Allah, or puts his trust in other than Him, does not love Allah, nor does he love His Messenger. Muslims should also love one another and wish the best for one another. Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said:
"One will not be a true believer unless he loves for his brother what he loves for himself." (Bukhari, Muslim, Nasa'i, Ahmed and Ibn Majah)
Imam Malik and Imam Ahmed narrated: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said: "Allah said: My love is due to those who love one another for My sake."
برنامج المصحف المعلم
بصوت الشيخ على بن عبد الرحمن الحذيفى إمام وخطيب الحرم المدنى
برنامج ذاتى الإقلاع يعمل فى بيئة الويندوز لأجهزة الحاسب الآلى
تم مراعاة أن يكون حجم البرنامج صغير لسهولة تداوله ونقله فالحجم الكلى للبرنامح 257 ميجا فقط
البرنامج يعمل تلقائياً بمجرد وضع الاسطوانة فى سواقة ( مشغل ) الاسطوانات قد يأخذ بعض الوقت لذلك , يمكن تشغيل البرنامج من على الجهاز مباشرة أو من على الاسطوانة بالنقر على ايقونة Autorun
عند تشغيل البرنامج لأول مرة فقط يتم تثبيت البرنامج وتثبيت الكوديكات والملفات اللازمة لتشغيل البرنامج , يأخذ الأمر عدة دقائق حسب سرعة جهازك
بعد تثبيت البرنامج تظهر صفحة المقدمة بعدها بثوانى يتم فتح البرنامج , بالنقر على المقدمة يمكن تخطيها والدخول للبرنامج مباشرة
الواجهة العربية للبرنامج
الآن يمكنك الإستماع الى القرآن الكريم مع تتابع ظهور الآيات وتلوينها باللون الأحمر أثناء تلاوتها
يمكنك التحكم فى درجة الصوت , عمل توقيف مؤقت للتلاوة , إزالة التوقيف , التقدم الى الامام والخلف بالنقر على الآية , إختيار وتنقل سهل وبسيط للتلاوة بواسطة اسم السورة او رقم الآية أو رقم الصفحة
دعاء ختم القرآن بصوت الشيخ الحذيفى للعام الهجرى 1427 مع خلفية فيديو
موسوعة التفاسير الشهيرة للقرآن الكريم : تفسير القرطبى - ابن كثير - الجلالين و أسباب النزول
ترجمة معانى كلمات القرآن للانجليزية
ترجمة معانى كلمات القرآن للفرنسية
إمكانية التكرار للتحفيظ إختيار عدد مرات التكرار , و الآيات المطلوب تكرارها , كما يمكن إيقاف هذه الخاصية بسهولة
إمكانية البحث فى كلمات القرآن
فهرس سور القرآن الكريم مع عرض معلومات عن السورة المختارة
الواجهة الإنجليزية للبرنامج
الواجهة الفرنسية للبرنامج
لمزيد من التفاصيل
ولا تنسوني من صالح دعائكم
Friday, 20 July 2007
افكر دائماً بمصيري بعد الموت وما قدمت الى الاسلام وماذا قدم غيري وكم ضيعنا من اوقاتنا ولم نجاهد في الله حق جهاده بالدعوة الى هذا الدين الكبير ..وحاولت ان اقارن اعمال حياة الصحابة بحياتي فوجدت اعمالي نقطة في محيطهم واقل ...ثم قارنت اعمال حياتي الى الان بيوم من حياتهم فأيضاً كان مثل نقطة في المحيط واقل
واتى بي اليأس ان قارنت حياتي كلها وماذا ساقدم وماذا قدمت الى الاسلام الى ساعة او دقيقة من حياة الصحابة فعرفت انني لم اقدم شيئاً الى الاسلام وانني انسان غير منتج اسلامياً ...
فأتى السؤال العظيم مرة اخرى ...اذا كان الصحابة لا ينامون الليل و "تتجافى جنوبهم عن المضاجع يدعون ربهم تضرعاً وخفية " ويخافون من العذاب ويعملون الى الاسلام ...
فهل استاهل انا الجنة ؟؟؟
هل استاهل حتى الدعاء ان اكون قرب المصطفى في الجنة او ختى انظر اليه على الحوض؟؟؟ لا والف لا فاين انا من هذه ...اين انا من الجنة يا اختي ؟؟؟؟
عذراً لكنني لن استطع ان اكمل.... فذنوبي يحجبون بصري وقلبي وروحي ....
What do Muslims believe?
Muslims believe in the One, Unique, Incomparable, Merciful God- the Sole Creator, Sustainer and Cherisher of the universe; in the Angels created by Him; in the prophets through whom his revelations were brought to humankind; in the Day of Judgment, and in individual accountability for action; in God’s complete authority over destiny, be it good or bad; and in life after death.
Muslims believe that God sent His messengers and prophets to all people. Biblical prophets mentioned in the Quran include; Adam, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael,
Isaac, Job, Ezekiel, Jacob, Joseph, Jonah, Jethro, Moses, Aaron, Elijah, Elisha, David, Solomon, Zechariah, John the Baptist, and Jesus; peace be upon them all.
God’s final message to humanity was revealed to the last prophet, Muhammad(peace be upon him), through the Archangel Gabriel. It confirmed and finalized all previous revelations that were to human kind through God’s messengers.
One becomes a Muslim by believing and proclaiming that, “There is no deity except God, and that Muhammad is the messenger of God.” By this declaration the believer announces his or her faith in all of God’s messengers, and in the scriptures revealed to them.
BELIEF IN ALLAH
Who is Allah?
Islam is the complete submission and obedience to Allah (God).
The name Allah (God) in Islam never refers to Muhammad (pbuh), as many Christians may think; Allah is the personal name of God.
What do Muslims believe about Allah?
1. He is the one God, Who has no partner.
2. Nothing is like Him. He is the Creator, not created, nor a part of His creation.
3. He is All-Powerful, absolutely Just.
4. There is no other entity in the entire universe worthy of worship besides Him.
5. He is First, Last, and Everlasting; He was when nothing was, and will be when nothing else remains.
6. He is the All-Knowing, and All-Merciful,the Supreme, the Sovereign.
7. It is only He Who is capable of granting life to anything.
8. He sent His Messengers (peace be upon them) to guide all of mankind.
9. He sent Muhammad (pbuh) as the last Prophet and Messenger for all mankind.
10. His book is the Holy Quran, the only authentic revealed book in the world that has been kept without change.
11. Allah knows what is in our hearts.
Allah is the proper Arabic name for God. Muslims believe in and worship the same One God the Jew and Christians worship. Allah says in the Quran:
“And do not debate with the People of the Book, unless in the best of manner, but not with those who are unjust, and say: ‘We believe in the Revelation that ha come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our God and your God is One; And to Him do we wholly give ourselves.’” (Quran 29:46)
Allah is unique term with no plural and no gender. It predates Muhammad and was also used in the form of El, Ilah or Elohim by David, Moses, Jesus and other messengers of God, peace be upon them all.
“He is God, the One that there is no deity but He; the Knower of the unseen and the apparent; He is the Source of All Mercy, the Merciful.
He is God, the One that there is no deity but He; the King, the Holy, the Sourse of All Peace, the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver, The Mighty, the Compeller, the Majestic; Glory to God, beyond their association (of partners with Him)!
He is God; the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner. To Him belong the most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth magnifies Him; He is the Mighty, the Wise.” (Quran 59:22-24).
Belief in Angels:
Muslims believe in the existence of the angels of Allah and that they are "honored servants. They do not speak before He does, and they act only by His command" (Quran 21:26). Allah created them, and they worship and obey Him. Those who are in His presence do not disdain to worship Him, nor do they weary" (Quran 21:19).
Angels are concealed from us, so we cannot see them. Allah may show them to some of His servants. The Prophet Muhammad saw Gabriel in his real shape with six hundred wings that covered the horizons (Bukhari and Muslim). Gabriel took the form of a handsome human being who met Mary and engaged in conversation with her. He came to the Prophet while he was among his Companions in the appearance of an unknown man who did not show any trace of long travel, with very white clothes, and very black hair. He sat facing the Prophet, his knees to the Prophet's knees, peace be upon him, and his palms on the Prophet's thighs and talked with the Prophet. The Prophet later told his Companions that the man they saw was Gabriel (Bukhari and Muslim).
Angels' Functions: We believe that the angels are assigned certain functions. Among the angels is Gabriel, who is entrusted with revelation. He brings it down from Allah to whomever He wishes among His prophets and messengers.
Among them is Michael, who is in charge of rain and the growth of plants; Israfil, who is in charge of blowing the horn at the time of thunder-bolting and the resurrection; the Angel of Death, who takes away people's souls at the time of death. Among the angels is the one who is in charge of mountains; and Malik, the keeper of Hell.
Some angels are in charge of embryos in wombs, others are responsible for protecting human beings, and others are busy recording men's deeds: there are two angels for every person, "when the two angels receive (his deeds), one sitting on the right and one on the left, not a word he utters but by him is an observer ready" (Quran 50:18). Some other angels are in charge of questioning the dead after he is placed in his last abode. Two angels come to him and ask him about his Lord, his religion, and his prophet. There "Allah confirms those who believe with the firm saying, in the present life and the hereafter, and Allah leads astray the evildoers and Allah does what He wills" (Quran 14:27).
Some angels are in charge of the dwellers of Paradise: "The angels enter to them from every gate, saying: 'Peace be upon you for that you were patient. How excellent is your final home"' (Quran 13:24).
The Prophet, peace be upon him, told us that "seventy thousand angels enter or pray in the populous house in heaven every day. They never come back to it as long as they live" (because their turn will never come) (Bukhari and Muslim).
Belief in the Revealed Books:
We believe that Allah revealed books to His messengers as proof against mankind and a guidance for the righteous workers. They purified and taught them wisdom by these books.
We believe that Allah sent down a book with every messenger, because He says: "Indeed We sent down Our messengers with the clear signs, and We sent down with them the book and the balance, so that people may uphold justice" (Quran 57:25).
Among the books that were revealed, we know:
I ) The Torah, which was revealed to Moses, peace be upon him. It is the greatest among the Israelites' books: "Surely, We sent down the Torah, wherein is guidance and light; by its laws the Jews have been judged by the prophets who surrendered themselves to Allah, the rabbis and the doctors of law, because they were entrusted the protection of Allah's book and were witnesses thereto" (Quran 5:44).
2) The Gospel, which Allah revealed to Jesus, peace be upon him. It is a confirmation of the Torah and a complement to it: "And we gave him the Gospel, wherein is guidance and light and confirming the Torah before it, as a guidance and an admonition to the God-fearing" (Quran 5:46); "And to make lawful to you certain things that, before, were forbidden to you" (Quran 3:50).
3) The Psalms, which Allah gave to David, peace be upon him.
4) The Tablets of Abraham and Moses, peace be upon them.
5) The Glorious Quran, which was revealed to His Prophet Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets. It is "a guidance to the people and clear signs of guidance and the criterion between right and wrong" (Quran 2:185). The Quran Is Protected from Change:
The Quran is "confirming the scripture that was before it and stands as a guardian over it." Thus, by means of the Quran, Allah abrogated all the previous revealed books. Allah has also guaranteed its protection from any play or mischievous distortion: "Indeed, We sent down the message and We will guard it" (Quran 15:9), for the Quran is a proof against mankind till the Day of Judgment.
Previous Scriptures Changed:
The previous scriptures were meant for a limited period. Their use ended with the revelation of the Quran, which abrogated them and exposed their distortions and changes. That is why they were not protected from corruption. They underwent distortion, addition, and omission: "Some of the Jews pervert words from their meanings" (Quran 4:46); "So woe to those who write the Book with their hands, and then say: 'This is from Allah,' that they may sell it for a little price. So woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for their earnings" (Quran 2:79); "Say, who sent down the Book that Moses brought as a light and a guidance to people? You put it into sheets of paper showing some of them and concealing much" (Quran 6:91); "And there is a group among them who twist their tongues with the Book, that you may think it is a part of the Book but it is not part of the Book. And they say 'It is from Allah,' yet it is not from Allah, and they tell a lie against Allah and they know it. It is not for any human being to whom Allah has given the Book, the Wisdom and the Prophet hood to say to men 'Worship me instead of Allah"' (Quran 3:79); "People of the Book! Our Messenger has come to you, making clear to you many things you have been concealing of the Book and forgiving you of much. A light has come to you from Allah and a glorious Book, with which He will guide whoever follows His pleasure in the way of peace, and brings them forth from darkness into the light by His will" (Quran 5:15-16).
Belief in Messengers:
Muslims believe that Allah has sent to His people messengers who were "bringing good tidings and warning, so that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the Messengers. Allah is All-mighty, All-wise" (Quran 4: 165).
The First and Last Messengers:
We believe that the first among the messengers is Noah and the last is Muhammad, peace be upon them all: "We revealed to you as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him" (Quran 4: 163); and "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets" (Quran 33:40).
The Best Messengers:
We believe that the best among the messengers is Muhammad, then Abraham, Moses, Noah, and Jesus, son of Mary. It is they who are meant by the following Quranic verse: "And when We took a compact from the prophets, and from you, and from Noah, and Abraham, then Moses, and Jesus, son of Mary. We took from them a solemn compact" (Quran 33:7).
We believe that Muhammad's message, peace be upon him, includes all the merits of the messages of those dignified messengers, because Allah says: "He ordained for you what He enjoined on Noah and what He revealed to you and what He enjoined on Abraham, Moses and Jesus; namely, establish this faith and be united in it" (Quran 42:13).
Messengers Are Human Beings:
We believe that all messengers are created human beings who have none of the divine qualities of Allah. Allah, the Exalted, said about Noah, who was the first among them: "I do not say to you, 'I possess the treasures of Allah.' I do not know the unseen, and I do not say 'I am an angel"' (Quran 11:31) Allah directed Muhammad, who is the last among them, to say: "I do not say to you I possess the treasures of Allah, nor do I know the unseen, and I do not say to you I am an angel" (Quran 6:50); and to say that "I have no power to bring profit or hurt for myself, but only as Allah wills" (Quran 7:188); and: "I have no power to hurt or benefit you. Say none can protect me from Allah, nor can I find any refuge besides Him" (Quran 72:91-2).
We believe that the messengers are among Allah's servants. He blessed them with the message and described them as servants, in the context of praising and honoring them. He says about Noah, the first among them: "You are the descendants of those whom We carried with Noah, he was a truly thankful servant" (Quran 17:3).
Allah said about the last among them, Muhammad, peace be upon him: "Blessed be He who sent down the Quran to His servant, that he may warn mankind" (Quran 25:1). As for some other messengers, he said: "And mention Our servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, men of might and vision" (Quran 38:45); "And remember Our servant David, who was a mighty and penitent man" (Quran 38: 17); "And to David, We gave Solomon, he was an excellent and penitent servant" (Quran 38:30).
Allah said about Jesus, son of Mary: "He is only a servant whom We blessed and We made him an example to the children of Israel" (Quran 43: 59).
We believe that Allah concluded all messages with the message of Muhammad, peace be upon him, to all people, because He said: "Say, 'O mankind, I am Allah's Messenger to you all. To him belongs the Kingdom of the Heavens and the Earth; there is no God but He. He ordains life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the unlettered Prophet who believes in Allah and His words. Follow him so that you may be rightly guided"' (Quran 7:158).
Islam: The Universal and Final Message:
We believe that the Shari'ah of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, is the religion of Islam, which Allah has chosen for His servants. He does not accept any other religion from anyone, for He, the Exalted, said: "Surely, the true religion in Allah's sight is Islam" (Quran 3:19), "Today I have perfected your religion for you and I have completed My favor upon you, and I have chosen Islam to be your religion" (Quran 5:3), and "Whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from Him, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers" (Quran 3:85).
It is our opinion that whoever claims that any religion other than Islam is acceptable, such as Judaism, Christianity and so forth, is a non believer. He should be asked to repent.
It is also our opinion that whoever rejects the universal message of Muhammad, peace be upon him, rejects the message of all messengers, even if he claims that he believes and follows His Messenger. Allah, the Exalted, said: "Noah's people rejected the Messengers" (Quran 26:105). Thus, Allah considered them as rejecting all of the messengers despite the fact that there was no messenger before Noah. This is also clear from the following verses: "Those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers, and wish to make division between Allah and His Messengers, and say: 'We believe in some and disbelieve in others,' wishing to take a midway course. Those indeed are the unbelievers, and We have prepared for the unbelievers a humiliating punishment" (Quran 4:150-51).
We believe that there is no prophet after Muhammad, Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him. Whoever claims prophet hood after him, or believes in anyone claiming it, is a disbeliever and one who rejects Allah, His Messenger, and the Muslims' consensus.
The Rightly Guided Caliphs:
We believe that the Prophet, peace be upon him, has rightly guided successors who carried out his Sunnah in spreading knowledge calling to Islam, and managing the Muslims' affairs. We believe that the best among them and the most entitled to the caliphate was Abu Bakr as Siddiq, then 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab, then 'Uthman Ibn Affan and then 'All Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with them all. Thus their succession to the caliphate was according to their virtues. Allah, the Exalted, who possesses infinite wisdom, would not appoint a ruler over the best of generations unless he was the most superior among them and had the best claim to caliphate.
We believe that the inferior among those rightly guided companions can be superior in a specific virtue to those who were better than him but that he does not deserve absolute superiority, for the elements constituting superiority are varied and numerous.
We believe that the Muslim Ummah is the best among nations, and Allah, the Dignified and Exalted, has blessed it, because He said: "You are the best nation ever brought forth for mankind, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah" The Prophet's Companions:
We believe that the best among the Muslim Ummah are the Prophet's Companions, then their followers, and then those who followed them.
We also believe that a group of this Ummah will always remain victorious on the right path, unharmed by those who let them down or those who oppose them, until the Day of Judgment.
We believe that the disputes that took place among the Prophet's Companions were the result of sincere interpretations that they worked hard to reach. Whoever was right among them will be rewarded twice, and whoever was wrong among them will be rewarded once and his mistake will be forgiven.
It is our opinion that we should stop talking about their mistakes and mention what they deserve of beautiful praise. We should purify our hearts from hatred and malice against any of them, because Allah said about them: "They are not equal: those among you who spent and who fought before the conquest of Makkah. Those are higher in rank than those who spent and fought afterwards. But to all Allah has promised a great reward" (57:10). And Allah said about us: "And those who came after them say: 'Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith, and do not put in our hearts any malice against those who have believed. Our Lord, You are the most Kind, Most Merciful"' (Quran 59:10).
THE LAST DAY
Belief in the Day of Judgment:
Muslims believe in the Final Day, which is the Day of Judgment, when people will be resurrected and then told to remain in the abode of enjoyment or in the abode of severe punishment.
We believe in the resurrection, which is Allah's bringing to life all those who have died, and when Israfil shall blow the horn for the second time: "And the trumpet shall be blown, and all who are in the heavens and who are in the Earth shall fall down fainting, except those that Allah shall spare. Then, it shall be blown again and they shall rise gazing around them" (Quran 39:68). People will arise from their graves, answering the call of the Lord of the universe. They will be barefooted, naked, and uncircumcised: "As We started the first creation, so We shall bring it back again. This is a promise from Us, so We shall assuredly fulfill it" (Quran 21: 104).
The Records and Scales:
We believe in the records of deeds that will be given to people in their right hands or behind their backs, in the left hands: "As for him who is given his book in his right hand, he shall surely receive an easy reckoning and he will return to his family rejoicing. But as for him who is given his book behind his back, he shall call for destruction on himself and will burn in a blazing fire" (Quran 84:7-12); "Every man's work We have fastened on his own neck, and on the Day of Judgment We shall bring out for him a book which he will see spread open, saying: 'Read your own book! Enough for you this day that your own soul should call you to account"' (Quran 17:13-14).
We believe that scales of deeds will be set up on the Day of Judgment, and that no soul shall be wronged: "Whoever has done an atom's weight of good shall see it" (Quran 99:7-8); "Those whose scales are heavy, they are the successful; but those whose scales are light, they are the ones who have lost their souls in Hell dwelling forever. The fire will burn their faces, and there they will be gloomy with lips displaced" (Quran 23: 102-4); and "He that does a good deed shall be rewarded ten times the like of it, and he that does evil shall only be rewarded the like of it, and they shall not be wronged" (Quran 6:160).
The Prophet's Intercession:
We believe in the special great intercession of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. He will plead with Allah, after His permission and on behalf of mankind, to judge among His servants when they suffer from worries and troubles that they cannot bear. They will go to Adam, then to Noah, then to Abraham, then to Moses, then to Jesus, and finally to Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
We believe in the intercession that concerns some believers who were to be taken out from the fire. This mediation is granted to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, and to others among the prophets, the believers, and the angels.
We believe also that Allah will save from hell some of the believers without the intercession of any one, but by His grace and mercy.
The Prophet's Pool:
We believe in the pool of the Prophet, peace be upon him, the water of which is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey and better in fragrance than musk. Each of its length and width is the distance of a month's travel. Its glasses are as stars in beauty and number. The believers among the Prophet's followers come to take from this great cistern a drink after which they will never be thirsty.
The Straight Path:
We believe in the straight path (sirat) set up over hell. People pass over it according to their deeds: the first of them as fast as lighting, then as fast as wind, then as fast as birds, and then as fast as a running man. The Prophet will be standing on the path, saying: "Lord, Save! Save!," as some people's deeds will fall short. Some of them will come crawling. At both sides of the path there are hooks designed to take whom Allah wills: some are saved but bruised; others are thrown into hell. (Bukhari and Muslim).
We believe in all that is mentioned in the Quran or the prophetic sayings concerning that day and its horrors, may Allah save us from them.
We believe in the intercession (Shafa'ah) of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, for the people of paradise to enter therein. This intercession is exclusively limited to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
Paradise and Hell:
We believe in paradise and hell. Paradise is the abode of enjoyment which Allah, the Exalted, prepared for the righteous. No eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard of, and no human being has ever thought of the blessings that they will enjoy there: "No soul knows what comfort is kept hidden for them, as a reward for their deeds" (Quran 32:17). Hell is the abode of punishment that Allah has prepared for the unbelievers and the evildoers. The torture and horror in it cannot be imagined: "Surely, We have prepared for the evildoers a fire, whose pavilion encompasses them. If they call for help, they will be helped with water like molten copper which will scald their faces. How dreadful a drink and how evil a resting place!" (Quran 18:29).
Both paradise and hell exist now and will never perish: "Whoever believes in Allah and does righteousness, He will admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever. Allah had indeed made for him an excellent provision" (65-11); "Certainly, Allah has cursed the unbelievers and prepared for them a blazing fire to dwell therein forever, they shall find neither protector nor helper. On the day when their faces are turned about in the fire they shall say: 'Would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger!"' (Quran 33: 64-6).
We confirm paradise to whom it is confirmed in the Quran or the prophetic traditions either by name or description. Among those who are granted paradise and mentioned by name are Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman, 'All and others who were specified by the Prophet, peace be upon him (Bukhari and Muslim). Among those whom we confirm to enter paradise because they fit the description are the faithful and the pious.
We likewise confirm hell to whom it is confirmed in the Quran and the sayings of the Prophet, whether in name or description. Among those who are mentioned by name to be in hell are Abu Lahab, 'Amr Ibn Luhai al-Khuza'i, and others (Bukhari and Muslim). Confirmation of hell that is based on description includes every unbeliever, polytheist, or hypocrite.
What Happens in the Grave:
We believe in the Trial of the Grave, which involves questioning the deceased person in his grave about his Lord, his religion, and his prophet. There "Allah confirms those who believe with a firm saying, in the present life and the hereafter" (Quran 14:27). The believer will say: "Allah is my Lord, Islam is my religion, and Muhammad is my prophet." The unbeliever or the hypocrite will say: "I do not know. I heard the people saying something and I said it."
We believe in the comfort of the grave for the believers: "Those whose lives the angels take in state of purity, saying 'peace be on you; enter paradise for what you were doing' (Quran 16:32).
We believe in the punishment of the grave for the transgressing unbelievers: "If you could only see when the evildoers are in the agonies of death and the angels are stretching out their hands, saying, 'Give up your souls! Today you shall be rewarded with the punishment of humiliation for what you used to say untrue about Allah, and for scornfully rejecting His signs"' (Quran 6:93). The sayings of the Prophet are numerous and well-known in this area. A Muslim must believe in all that is reported in the Quran and the prophetic traditions concerning the unseen matters. He should not contradict it by his worldly experience, because the affairs of the hereafter cannot be measured by the affairs of this life. The difference between them is very great. Allah is the source of help.
FATE AND THE DIVINE DECREE
Belief in Pre-Destination:
We believe in Fate, whether good or bad, which Allah has measured and ordained for all creatures according to His previous knowledge and as deemed suitable by His wisdom.
Levels of Belief:
Belief in Fate has four levels: 1) Knowledge: We believe that Allah, may He be exalted, knows everything. He knows what has happened and what will happen and how it will happen. His knowledge is eternal. He does not acquire a new knowledge nor does he forget what He knows.
2) Recording: We believe that Allah has recorded in the secured tablet (al Lowh al Mahfuz) whatever is going to happen until the Day of Judgment: "Did you not know that Allah knows all that is in heaven and Earth? Surely that is in a book. Surely that for Allah is an easy matter" (Quran 22:70).
3) Will: We believe that Allah has willed everything in heaven and Earth. Nothing happens except by His will. Whatever He wills will take place, and whatever He does not will not take place.
4) Creation: We believe that "Allah is the Creator of all things; He is the Guardian over all things, and to Him belong the keys of the heavens and the Earth" (Quran 39:62-3). This level includes whatever Allah Himself does and whatever His creatures do. Thus each saying, deed, or omission of the people is known to Allah, Who has recorded, willed, and created them: "To those among you who will to be upright. But you shall not will except as Allah wills, the Lord of the Worlds" (Quran 81:2829); "And had Allah willed they would not have fought one against the other; but Allah does whatever He desires" (Quran 2:253); "Had Allah willed, they would not have done so, but leave them alone and their false inventions" (Quran 6:137); and "And Allah created you and what you do" (Quran 37:96). Man's Free Will:
We believe, however, that Allah has granted man a power and a free will by which he performs his actions. That man's deeds are done by his power and free will can be proven by the following points:
1) Allah says: "So approach your fields (wives) when and how you will" (Quran 2:223); and "Had they desired to go forth, they would have made some preparation for it" (9:46). In these verses, Allah affirmed for man "a going forth" by his will and "a preparation" by his desire.
2) Directing man to do or not to do. If man has no free will and power, these directions mean that Allah is asking man to do that which he cannot do. This proposition is rejected by Allah's wisdom, mercy and truthful statement: "Allah does not charge a soul beyond its capacity" (Quran 2:286).
3) Praising the virtuous for his deeds and blaming the evildoer for his actions and rewarding each of them with what he deserves. If the action is not done by the individual's free will, then praising the virtuous is a joke and punishing the evildoer is an injustice, and Allah is, of course, far from joking and being unjust.
4) Allah has sent messengers who are "bearing good tidings, and warning, so that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the messengers" (Quran 4:165). If the individual's action is not performed by his free will, his argument is not invalidated by the sending of messengers.
5) Every doer of actions feels that he does or does not do a thing without any coercion. He stands up and sits, comes in and goes out, travels and stays by his own free will without feeling anybody forcing him to be any of these actions. In fact, he clearly distinguishes between doing something of his own free will and someone else forcing him to do that action. The Islamic law also wisely distinguishes between these states of affairs. It does not punish a wrongdoer for an action done under compulsion.
No Excuse for Sinners:
We believe that the sinner has no excuse in Allah's divine decree, because he commits his sin by his free will, without knowing that Allah has decreed for him, for no one knows Allah's decree before it takes place: "No soul knows what it will earn tomorrow" (Quran 31:34). How can it be possible, then, to present an excuse that is not known to the person who is advancing it when he commits his offense? Allah invalidated this type of argument by saying: "The idolaters will say 'Had Allah willed, we would not have been idolaters, neither our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything.' So did the people before them cry lies until they tasted our might. Say: 'Have you any proofs that you can show us? You follow nothing but assumption, and you are Lying"' (Quran 6:148). We say to the sinner who is using divine decree as an excuse: 'Why did you not perform deeds of obedience, assuming that Allah has decreed them upon you, since you did not know the difference between good deeds and sins? That is why, when Prophet Muhammad told his Companions that everyone's position in paradise or hell has been assigned, they said: 'Should not we rely on this and stop working?' He said: 'No, work and everyone will be directed to what he is created for"' (Bukhari and Muslim).
We say to the sinner who is trying to find an excuse in the divine decree: "Suppose you want to travel to Makkah. There are two roads that may take you there. You are told by a truthful person that one of these roads is dangerous and difficult, the other is easy and safe. You will take the second one. You will not take the first road and say it is decreed upon me. If you did, people would consider you crazy."
We may also say to him: "If you are offered two jobs, one of which has a higher salary, you will certainly take the one with the higher salary. Why do you choose what is lower in the hereafter and use the divine decree as an excuse?"
We may further say to him: "We see you when you are afflicted with a disease, you knock at every physician's door looking for treatment and bearing whatever pain that may result from surgical operations and the bitterness of medicine. Why do not you do the same when your heart is spiritually sick with sins?"
Evil Not Attributed to Allah:We believe that evil should not be attributed to Allah, due to His perfect mercy and wisdom. The Prophet said: "And evil is not attributable to You" (Muslim). Thus Allah's decree by itself has no evil whatsoever, because it is coming from mercy and wisdom. Evil may, however, result from some of His decrees, because the Prophet said in the supplication for gunut which he taught to al-Hasan: "And protect us from the evil of what You decreed" (Tirmidhi and others). Here, the Prophet attributed evil to what He decreed. Despite this, evil in His decree is not pure evil. It is rather evil in one respect and good in another, or it is evil in one case and good in another. Thus corruption in the land resulting from drought, disease, poverty, and fear is evil, but it is good in another respect. Allah, the Exalted said: "Corruption has appeared on the land and sea for what men's hands have earned. Allah has ordained this for men, so that they may taste some of what they have done, in order that they may turn back (from evil)" (Quran 30:41). Cutting off the thief's hand or stoning the adulterer is an evil thing for the thief and the adulterer, but it is good for them in one respect, because it is a purification for them so that the punishment of this life and the hereafter are not combined for them. These punishments are good in another respect: their application protects property, honor, and relationships.
E CHANGING NEW MUSLIM
By Khadija Watson
Embracing Islam is not just embracing a new religion but a new way of life. It affects our whole outlook on life, because Islam is not just a compartmentalized area of your life like some religions, but a new way of living. It is not an indoctrination of a religious idealism or ideology but a world view of life itself, how Allah has intended us to live. The closer we come to fulfilling His requirements for life, not only will it mean inner peace for ourselves but a more peaceful world.
Contrary to the idea that Islam is a religion of terror which has been projected by people who are ignorant of the religion itself, Islam is a way of peace and justice.
Most of us upon embracing Islam, were not aware of its everyday aspect, rather we noted the theological Oneness of God (The Omniscient, Omnipresent, Omnipowerful God). Who could understand the Trinity since the word itself is not mentioned once in the Bible?
Suddenly our life is changed into doing things that never occurred to us to do before, nor had we interest in; such as praying five times a day, wearing hijab, or going to the mosque. It all seems so radical from our previous life style. One which might have included parties, drinking, drugs, or those who were not evolved in such evils themselves, perhaps lived a more sedate and moral life.
What are the most difficult thing facing a new Muslim?
It is not its religious duties such as praying and wearing hijab, rather it is dealing with the people who are closest to us: our family and friends. Up until the last few years most of us had not heard of Islam, or if we did it held some vague concept of a far off people different in culture than our own. ( see the article Islam the fastest growing religion on this web site) ) Suddenly it was thrust upon us as a religion of terror and most of us have to deal with this concept. My own family being ignorant of Islamic beliefs thought that I had become a terrorist!! After which I sent them some booklets explaining the religious beliefs, they then thought I was trying to convert them, rather then just inform them! (We didn't get off to a good start and Allah forbids us to force people to become Muslims)
Many sisters from Christian back grounds have been disowned and thrown out on the street, not very exemplary Christian attitude. Most families are not understanding at first: it took seven years for some of my family members to accept, not approve that I had become a Muslim and would never return to Christianity. At least I was an adult and could deal with them on this level; it will be more difficult if you still live with your parents or in a culture where parents and older brothers or sisters have the final say.
In either case one should always be respectful to them unless they are at the point of physical violence, in which case you may need to seek help from Muslim brothers or sisters. Allah cautions us in the Holy Quran not to break relationships with our family unless under the severest of terms. He further admonishes us not to obey our parents if they tell us to do something that goes against His Word : such as kneeling before statues or making partners with God, as in worshipping the Trinity, Saints, Hinduism, Buddhism, Paganism or different Occults. We may find this exceedingly difficult in the beginning when everything is new and we are still unfamiliar with the Holy Quran and Sunnah (the way of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him) Allah will give you strength and resolve during this time. He says in the Holy Quran that He will not change a person until they change themselves. In other words you take the first step and He will see you through, this is called Faith.
Also try to learn as much as you can about Islam, join any study groups or lectures that are available. If you are unable to do that, study as much as you can on your own, there are many good books available. If this is not possible then at lest read the Holy Quran and try to get hold of Sahih Al-Bukhari, which is the hadith of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) The Ahadith (plural for hadith) are the teachings, sayings, explanations of the Holy Quran, example and way of life of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and the way he taught his companions, called the Sahaba. If you have no other books these two would be the most important to be able to learn about Islam and how a Muslim should behave and live. When you finish reading them then read them again and again and again. Then enact upon what you have read. Be inspired to imitate and incorporate in your life the things that the early Muslims did, this way you will not go wrong or end up following a person who might mean well but is not following the way of the Prophet. (peace and blessings be upon him) As you read you will be inspired to follow one idea, then another and another. It is not necessary to try to follow everything at once but rather take it one step at a time.
Your friends you won't have to worry about because they will probably drop you before you drop them. A friend is one who accepts you for who you are not what you are; only a true friend will be able to do this. When they find out you are no longer interested in the type of behavior that you previously exhibited, there is a natural desire to stop wanting to be with you and you with them. Some who feel empty of their own life style will surprisingly show an interest in yours!! What made you change, what do you believe? This is an excellent opportunity for you to share what Allah has done for you and what you know about Islam. Don't be afraid to share, unlike Christianity you don't have to be a theologian or evangelist. And don't think that you don't know enough, because you as a new Muslim know more about Islam than the non-Muslim even if your knowledge is limited. Don't be afraid of the exuberant Christian who wants to thump their bible in your face, after all it is not Christianity that you are interested in it is Islam! Christians have only studied Islam from a Christian perspective so they are sincere but sincerely wrong! Let them study Islam from an Islamic perspective then they are ready to have a discussion.
Prayer is a time we separate ourselves from our busy activities to reflect upon and worship our Creator God, Allah. Praying five times a day is mandatory on a Muslim, however trying in the beginning to say the prayers in Arabic, the heavenly and earthly language in which it was revealed will be quite difficult and have little impact on you. It is better to learn the words of the prayer in your native language first, whether that is English or some other language, so that you understand what you are saying. Later after you feel comfortable and enjoy praying then every effort must be made to learn it in Arabic.
Likewise wearing the hijab or scarf is also mandatory for a Muslim woman. This is probably the most difficult thing the Muslim woman is required to do, as wearing the hijab identifies us as a Muslim and separates us from the rest of society. Funny, that a Catholic nun can wear a habit (the covering of a Catholic nun) and she is called religious, but a Muslim woman wearing a hijab is called suppressed!! It is important to know first why we are required to wear this. It is not because any husband, father, brother, uncle, grandfather or any other male in the Muslim society is forcing you. It is because it is a direct command from Allah, that the woman should cover herself as a way of protection, modesty and obedience to Allah. Found in Chapter An-Nur (24;31) and chapter Al-Ahzab (33:59) of the Holy Quran. A Muslim woman not wearing hijab is in direct disobedience to Allah and has moved out from under His protection in this area. Many Western and European countries are now at odds about a Muslim woman or child wearing hijab while in public or in schools. If you were to go down the street wearing little clothing, no bra and see through clothes no one would say anything to you. But if you are wearing a hijab and outer covering you are scorned by society. Take heart my dear sisters as your reward for obedience is great. This is your jihad (meaning struggle not holy war) may Allah give you courage and dignity. Many of us have experienced harassment and cruelty but it has only served to enforce our resolve to obey Allah, and to be better stronger Muslims.
What is Islam?
Islam simply means the achieve peace. Peace with God, peace with oneself, and peace with the creations of God – through wholly giving oneself to God and accepting His guidance.
Islam is not a new religion but the final culmination and fulfillment of the same basic truth that God revealed through all His prophets to every people. A way of life symbolized by peace-peace with God, peace within oneself, and peace with the creations of God through submission to God and commitment to His guidance.
Muslims believe that it is the same truth that God revealed through all His prophets to every people. For a fifth of the world’s population, Islam is not just a personal religion, but a complete way of life.
Islam is a qualitative term – the quality of accepting God’s supreme authority above one’s own. As such, being a Muslim does not mean having to give up one’s culture or traditions; rather it means adopting the simple and logical principles of Islam to better one’s life and attain peace.
What are the pillars of Islam? Testimony
The “five pillars” of Islam are the basis of Muslim life. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said:
“Islam is founded on five pillars: to testify that ‘there is no deity except God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God;' to establish the ritual prayers; to give charity (to the needy); to perform the pilgrimage to the house (of worship in Makkah); and to fast during the month of Ramadan.”
A practicing Muslim's life is centered on these pillars. The first and foremost of these is the testimony. “There is no deity except God; Muhammad is the messenger of God.”
This simple declaration of faith is required of all those who accept Islam as their chosen way of life. The words have to be uttered with sincere conviction and under no coercion. The significance of this testimony is the belief that the only purpose of life is to serve and obey God; and this is achieved through following the example of Prophet Muhammad.
Muslims believe that throughout history, God sent His chosen messengers to guide humankind. The testimony that these prophets taught was similar. The first commandment found in the Bible is “I am the Lord, thy God; thou shalt not have other gods before Me.” This belief in the Oneness of God is central to Islam and permeates all of Muslim life.
What are the pillars of Islam? Pilgrimage
The pilgrimage to Makkah (the hajj) is a once-in-a-lifetime obligation for those who are physically and financially able. Over two million people, from all corners of the globe, go for hajj each year making it the largest gathering for peace. Hajj provides a unique opportunity for people from different nations to meet one another.
The annual Hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic year. The Islamic year is lunar, consequently Hajj occurs throughout all seasons during one's lifetime.
Pilgrims enter a state of sacredness where arguing and fighting, cutting a plant or even harming a fly is prohibited. They wear simple garments that strip away distinctions of class and culture, so that all stand equal before God.
The rites of the Hajj go back to Abraham and his family. They include visiting the Kabah and standing together on the wide plains of Arafat (a large expanse of desert outside Makkah). Here pilgrims pray for God's forgiveness, in what is often considered a preview of the Day of Judgment. The Hajj provides a unique opportunity for Muslims to reflect on their lives, to refocus on God, and to return to their families and homes spiritually rejuvenated.
The close of the Hajj is marked by the Festival of the Sacrifice, Eid al Adha. Pilgrims sacrifice a sheep or goat, commemorating Abraham's readiness to sacrifice his own son. The sacrificial meat is distributed to the needy. Muslims around the world celebrate this day with prayers, ritual sacrifice, and an exchange of gifts. More on the Hajj here .
What are the pillars of Islam? Fasting
Fasting in the month of Ramadan is an essential part of being a Muslim. Muslims fast from dawn until sundown-abstaining from food and drink, and guarding themselves from destructive behavior.
Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and a women who are pregnant or nursing, are permitted to break the fast and make up an equal number of days later in the year. Children begin to fast (and to observe prayers) from puberty, although many start earlier.
God stated in the Quran: “O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed to those before you that you may achieve greater awareness (of God)” (Quran 2:183)
Fasting is not only beneficial to heath, but it also allows one to truly empathize with those less fortunate. However, fasting is mainly a method of self-purification and self-restraint. By cutting oneself from worldly comforts, even for a short time, a fasting person focuses on his or her purpose in life by constantly being aware of God.
Ramadan is a special time for Muslims everywhere; a time for reflection and greater spirituality. The end of Ramadan is observed by a holiday- Eid al Fitr. On this day, Muslims all over the world celebrates with prayers and an exchange of gifts.
What are the pillars of Islam? Zakah or Almsgiving
An important principle of Islam is that every thing belongs to God, and that wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. The word ‘zakah' means both “purification” and “growth”. Setting aside a proportion for those in need purifies our possessions, and like the pruning of plants, this cutting back balances and encourages new growth.
What are the pillars of Islam? Prayer
A key element of Muslim life is the obligatory, ritual prayer. These prayers are performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshipper and God. This very personal relationship with the Creator allows one to fully depend, trust and love God; and to truly achieve inner peace and harmony, regardless of the trials one face.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “Indeed, when one of you prays, he speaks privately with his Lord.”
Prayers are performed at dawn, mid-day, late-afternoon, sunset and nightfall; reminding one of God throughout the day. Regular prayer helps prevent destructive deeds and gives one opportunity to seek God's pardon for any misgivings.
The Prophet once asked his companions: “Do you think if there was a river by the door and one of you bathed in it five times a day; would there remain any dirt on him?” The Prophet's companions answered in the negative. The Prophet then said: “That is how it is with the five (daily) prayers; through them God washes away your sins.”
Friday is the day of congregation for Muslims. The mid-day prayer on Friday is different from all other prayers in that it includes a sermon. Prayers at other times are relatively simple; they include verses from the Quran and take only a few minutes to complete.
Muslims are greatly encouraged to perform their five daily prayers in congregation, and in a Mosque. A Mosque, in its most basic form, is simply a clean area designated for prayers. Mosques throughout the world have taken on various architectural forms, reflecting local cultures. They range from detached pavilions in China to elaborate courtyards in India ; from massive domes in Turkey to glass and steel structures in the United States . However, one unique and very obvious feature remains-the “call to prayer.”
The first person to call Muslims to prayer was a freed African slave from Abyssinia , Bilal ibn Rabah. He was a beloved companion of Prophet Muhammad, whose rich and melodious voice called the Muslims of Madinah to prayer five times a day.
A translation of the call to prayer is:
God is Greater, God is Greater;
God is Greater, God is Greater.
I testify there is no deity except God;
I testify there is no deity except God.
I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God;
I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God.
Come to prayer! Come to prayer!
Come to success! Come to success!
God is Greater! God is Greater!
There is no deity except God.
Who are the Muslims?
Muslims come from all races, nationalities and cultures across the globe. They have varied languages, foods, dress, and customs; even the way they practice may differ. Yet they all consider themselves to be Muslim.
Less than 15% of Muslims live in the Arab world; a fifth are found in Sub-Saharan Africa; and the world’s largest Muslim community is in Indonesia. Substantial parts of Asia, and almost all Central Asian republics, are Muslims. Significant Muslim minorities are found in China, India, Russia, Europe, North America and South America.
Over a billion people from all races, nationalities and cultures across the globe are Muslims-from the rice farms of Indonesia to the desert heart of Africa ; from the skyscrapers of New York to the Bedouin tents in Arabia .
How did the spread of Islam affect the World?
The Muslim community continued to grow after Prophet Muhammad’s death. Within a few decades, vast numbers of people across three continents-Africa, Asia and Europe- had chosen Islam as their way of life.
One of the reasons for the rapid and peaceful spread of Islam was the purity of its doctrine-Islam calls for faith in only One God. This, coupled with the Islamic concepts of equality, justice and freedom, resulted in a united and peaceful community. People were free to travel from Spain to China without fear, and without crossing any borders.
As millions of people embraced Islam, they brought with them the heritage of ancient civilizations like Egypt, Greece, India, Persia, and Rome. Muslims cherished these cultures knowledge and took great pains to preserve their libraries and honor the scholars residing in their cities.
Many Muslims scholars traveled to these cities seeking knowledge. They translated into Arabic volumes of philosophical and scientific works from Greek and Syriac languages (the languages of Eastern Christian scholars), from Pahlavi (the scholarly language of Pre-Islamic Persia), and from Sanskrit (an ancient Indian language). As a result, Arabic became the language of worldly scholarship, and people migrated from all over the world to study in the Muslim Universities.
By 850, most of the philosophical and scientific works of Aristotle; much of Plato and the Pythagorean School; and the major works of Greek astronomy, mathematics and medicine such as the Almagest of Ptolemy, the Elements of Euclid, and the works of Hippocrates and Galen, were all rendered into Arabic. Further more, important works of astronomy, mathematics and medicine were translated from Pahlavi and Sanskirt. For the next 700 years, Arabic became the most important scientific language of the world and the repository of much of the wisdom and the sciences of antiquity.
The achievement of scholars working in the Islamic tradition went far beyond translation and preservation of ancient learning. These scholars built upon the ancient heritage with their own scientific advances. These advancements were a direct cause of the Renaissance in Europe.
Muslims excelled in art, architecture, astronomy, geography, history, language, literature, medicine, mathematics and physics. Many crucial systems such as algebra, the Arabic numerals, and the very concept of the zero (vital to the advancement of mathematics), were formulated by Muslim scholars and shared with medieval Europe. Muslims invented sophisticated instruments that made future European voyages of discovery possible: the astrolabe, the quadrant, and detailed navigational maps and charts.
Muslims Contribution To Science
Muslims have always had a special interest in astronomy. The moon and the sun are of vital importance in the daily life of every Muslim. By the moon, Muslims determine the beginning and the end of the months in their lunar calendar. By the sun the Muslims calculate the times for prayer and fasting. It is also by means of astronomy that Muslims can determine the precise direction of the Qiblah, to face the Ka'bah in Makkah, during prayer. The most precise solar calendar, superior to the Julian, is the Jilali, devised under the supervision of Umar Khayyam.
The Quran contains many references to astronomy.
"The heavens and the earth were ordered rightly, and were made subservient to man, including the sun, the moon, the stars, and day and night. Every heavenly body moves in an orbit assigned to it by God and never digresses, making the universe an orderly cosmos whose life and existence, diminution and expansion, are totally determined by the Creator." [Quran 30:22]
These references, and the injunctions to learn, inspired the early Muslim scholars to study the heavens. They integrated the earlier works of the Indians, Persians and Greeks into a new synthesis. Ptolemy's Almagest (the title as we know it is Arabic) was translated, studied and criticized. Many new stars were discovered, as we see in their Arabic names - Algol, Deneb, Betelgeuse, Rigel, Aldebaran. Astronomical tables were compiled, among them the Toledan tables, which were used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Also compiled were almanacs - another Arabic term. Other terms from Arabic are zenith, nadir, albedo, azimuth.
Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories, like the one built at Mugharah by Hulagu, the son of Genghis Khan, in Persia, and they invented instruments such as the quadrant and astrolabe, which led to advances not only in astronomy but in oceanic navigation, contributing to the European age of exploration.
Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. In fact, the Muslims' great concern for geography originated with their religion. The Quran encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see God's signs and patterns everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the Qiblah (the position of the Ka'bah in Makkah) in order to pray five times a day. Muslims were also used to taking long journeys to conduct trade as well as to make the Hajj and spread their religion. The far-flung Islamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to compile large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta, renowned for their written accounts of their extensive explorations.
In 1166, Al-Idrisi, the well-known Muslim scholar who served the Sicilian court, produced very accurate maps, including a world map with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities. Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in color.
It was, moreover, with the help of Muslim navigators and their inventions that Magellan was able to traverse the Cape of Good Hope, and Da Gama and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their ships.
Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim, man and woman. The main sources of Islam, the Quran and the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad's traditions), encourage Muslims to seek knowledge and be scholars, since this is the best way for people to know Allah (God), to appreciate His wondrous creations and be thankful for them. Muslims were therefore eager to seek knowledge, both religious and secular, and within a few years of Muhammad's mission, a great civilization sprang up and flourished. The outcome is shown in the spread of Islamic universities; Al-Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al-Azhar in Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest existing universities in the world. Indeed, they were the models for the first European universities, such as Bologna, Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne. Even the familiar academic cap and gown originated at Al-Azhar University.
Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as geography, physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, architecture, linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars. The astrolabe, the quadrant, and other navigational devices and maps were developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in world progress, most notably in Europe's age of exploration.
Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilations from Greece and Rome to China and India. The works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others were translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally transmitted this new knowledge to Europe, leading directly to the Rennaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been translated into Latin, were standard text and reference books as late as the 17th and 18th centuries.
It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the universe. For example, the Holy Quran states:
"We (Allah) will show you (mankind) Our signs/patterns in the horizons/universe and in yourselves until you are convinced that the revelation is the truth." [Quran, 14:53]
This invitation to explore and search made Muslims interested in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and the other sciences, and they had a very clear and firm understanding of the correspondences among geometry, mathematics, and astronomy.
The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word "cipher" comes from Arabic sifr), and they organized the numbers into the decimal system - base 10. Additionally, they invented the symbol to express an unkown quantity, i.e. variables like x.
The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the subject of algebra (al-Jabr), which was further developed by others, most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi's work, in Latin translation, brought the Arabic numerals along with the mathematics to Europe, through Spain. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name.
Muslim mathematicians excelled also in geometry, as can be seen in their graphic arts, and it was the great Al-Biruni (who excelled also in the fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in number theory.
In Islam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created by Almighty Allah (God). How it functions, how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or cure those diseases, have been important issues for Muslims.
Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to "take medicines for your diseases", as people at that time were reluctant to do so. He also said,
"God created no illness, but established for it a cure, except for old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will recover with the permission of God."
This was strong motivation to encourage Muslim scientists to explore, develop, and apply empirical laws. Much attention was given to medicine and public health care. The first hospital was built in Baghdad in 706 AC. The Muslims also used camel caravans as mobile hospitals, which moved from place to place.
Since the religion did not forbid it, Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to help their students understand how the body functions. This empirical study enabled surgery to develop very quickly.
Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932) was one of the greatest physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was inrivalled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a treatise on hygeine in hospitals. Khalaf Abul-Qasim Al-Zahrawi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known in Europe for his work, Concessio (Kitab al-Tasrif).
Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician until the modern era. His famous book, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in Europe, for over 700 years. Ibn Sina's work is still studied and built upon in the East.Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn Sina's Kitab al-Shifa' (Book of Healing), and in public health. Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals, some of them teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygeine practiced in them.